The History of Bardykes

From the forthcoming book “Blantyre Explained” by Paul D Veverka © 2015

The Name

Bardykes is likely taken from the word “Bar”- meaning ‘low hills’ and the Gaelic Dike, Dyk, as meaning “a wall of turf or stone”. It is a fitting description for a lower part of Blantyre that would have stonewall farm fields.

Jacksons

The Jackson or Jacksone family were in possession of the lands of Bardykes, (or Bardykis as it was then known) officially from 25th October 1525 although other Blantyre historians have suggested it may be as far back as 1502. Incredibly, with the exception of the Miller family at Milheugh, they are the longest surviving family owning land in one place in Blantyre, occupying and owning the land at Bardykes for the best part of 400.

Owning mineral rights on their lands, some wealth was accumulated from their nearby estates at Hallside and Spittalhill. However, Their wealth was in later centuries derived from their vast tea plantations in Sri-Lanka (formerly Ceylon), conducting their business as merchants Messrs Jackson, Buchanan & Company in Glasgow. They went on to become one of the largest wholesale tea dealers in Scotland.

The Jacksons were also known to own land and properties at Greencroft and nearby at Barnhill.

Heritors and Lord Blantyre

Being such a prominent family and as heritors of Blantyre, they owed a duty to Walter Stuart of Minto, the Commendator of Blantyre when he was given ownership of much of the Parish land on 18th January 1598. The land was noted as “Bairdisdykis” as well as other established areas. In 1606, when he became Lord Blantyre, as a gesture and a departure from paying taxes, the Jackson family presented an annual red rose to Lord Blantyre instead as a reddendo.

A John Jackson died in 1707, his will showing all belongings passing to his family of the same name. By this Century the family were marrying into other large farms in the area, occupying other Blantyre farms like Park, Coatshill, Croftfoot and Old Place.

In 1745 when the highlanders of Bonnie Prince Charlie’s army were returning north after the unsuccessful expedition into England to place the Prince on the British throne, many of the stragglers passed through Blantyre, just as they did when they marched south at the beginning of the ill fated journey. To prevent the highlanders from pillaging his house in search of food, the Laird of Bardykes ensured there was an ample supply of bannocks and whiskey at the gates of Bardykes House for the hungry soldiers.

In 1793 a John Jackson Junior lived at Bardykes. This gentleman died aged 98 in his home during October 1801.

On Monday 24th August 1847, crops and the entire equipment and stock at Bardykes was sold off, likely following another death of a Jackson family member. This may have signified the leasing of the farm to others. 20 Acres of Oats, 4 acres of beans, some barley, 3 acres of turnips, some potatoes, a quantity of rye grass, meadow hay, thrashing mill, gig and gig harnesses, 3 horses, 6 cows, some queys, carts, ploughs and farming utensils.

However, just 3 years later, in 1850, Bardykes was still owned by a Robert Jackson. By mid March 1853, Robert was letting his house out, placing an advert in the Glasgow Herald “To let The House at Bardykes consisting of 2 rooms and a kitchen, with Garret rooms and a good garden.” He was again letting it out in 1856, this time unfurnished, a sign the previous tenancy had been short lived. Then again in May 1857. It would appear people wishing to take tenancy certainly on this particular part of the farm at Bardykes were few and far between. This may have affected Robert’s health for he died on 22nd September 1857 at Bardykes.

Robert’s death prompted another sale of items at Bardykes Farm. On 14th November 1857, that winters day, the following items were auctioned off. 3 Horses and a foal, 12 cows and a calf, a number of young cattle, a great number of stacks wheat, oats, beans and hay. Turnips, carts, ploughs, harrows. It was noted that the crops and cattle were of a first class order. However, again we see no sale of property, the farm and outbuildings retained by the Jacksons. It didn’t sell and was carried to a second more detailed auction on 14th December 1857, this time much more heavily advertised.

That same month, the Jackson estate put the farm up for lease for another 15 years. It amounted to 70 acres and it was noted that the farm had been well tended and the fields in excellent condition. At the time of the lease 12 acres had already been sown with wheat and a further 10 acres with rye grass.

Bardykes Old Farm House

Whilst the name Bardykes relates to an area of Blantyre, it is now best associated with the large stone built detached house which is located off Callaghan Drive at Bardykes Road, not far from the west end of Glasgow Road.

Prior to the current house built, a good-sized farm steading was all that was on this land. The Valuation books for 1859 state, “A good Farm Steading. The property of Mrs. Jackson.” Whilst Mrs Jackson was then the owner, a Robert Wilson was the occupier, likely the farmer, paying an annual rent to the Jacksons.

Mrs Janet Jackson (nee Dick) died on 3rd January 1864.

Thomas and Robert Wilson who had been leasing the farm are known to have left sometime the next year, for in December 1865. The land is known to have been 84 acres, showing that further fields had been farmed on by the Wilsons. The farm was to be shown by John Jackson of Spittalhill, the Jackson family living at that larger property nearby. The advert continued to January 1866, suggesting it was leased out in 1866, which I have found out was to a Mr. John Caldwell. A Mr Thomas Nelson also lived on a small building on the farm, according to 1865 valuation roll.

At that time, the original farm was one storey, set almost in a quadrangle with one side missing (U shaped). It was accessed off a track that led in exactly where the avenue leads in to the current house. Outside, were barns and buildings, which may have doubled as farmhand accommodation. As much as the Jacksons had accumulated a fortune, the farm buildings here may not have showed that to good effect, by comparison to the other large homes in Blantyre like Auchinraith, Milheugh, Crossbasket or Caldergrove.

As you came up the entrance, a low single storey long barn was on the right, as the road opened out on to the farm courtyard. Just off the courtyard to the right was another long single storey barn. The farmhouse was on the left, forming part of the courtyard itself. Opposite it was another building, which possibly could have been 2-storey, with steps at the side, and out the back of this was a well.

On 2nd February 1871, a dealers quarrel took place on the farm when John Russell the farmer at Burnbrae was stopped by an officer of the law questioning why he was threshing wheat at Bardykes. Work was stopped as Russell explained he had bought it from Mr John Caldwell, the farmer at Bardykes. The case ended up in court and involved Allan Craig, portioner of Blantyre to resolve. Mr Caldwell was also subjected to a theft of £2 notes in Hamilton in 1872.

At this time in 1871, Mr James Jackson was noted as the owner of Bardykes Farm. It is here we see the end of references to the old farm and new references to Bardykes House appear. Indeed in 1871 census 49 year old James is living in “Bardykes Inatora House” along with his 3 brothers and sister Janet. 71-year old Janet Scott was the housekeeper of the new house.

As such, 1871, saw a fundamental change where Bardykes Farm became Bardykes House.

Continued on Part 2

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continued on part 2

 

7 responses to “The History of Bardykes

  1. After the 1881C I cannot trace James or John – MIA somewhere. But their younger brother Thomas lives on until the 1901C as far as I can ascertain. But in the 1891 he is no longer living at Bardykes House which is a mystery although he now has the occupation of a Wholesale Tea merchant:

    1891C:
    Name: Thomas Jackson
    Age: 33
    Estimated birth year: abt 1858
    Relationship: Head
    Gender: Male
    Where born: Blantyre, Lanarkshire
    Registration Number: 624
    Registration district: Blantyre
    Civil Parish: Blantyre
    County: Lanarkshire
    Address: Greencroft House
    Occupation: Tea Merchant Wholesale
    ED: 3
    Household schedule number: 212
    LINE: 1
    Roll: CSSCT1891_223
    Household Members:
    Name Age
    Thomas Jackson 33
    Annie Gray 48
    Jeanie Robertson 16

    But by the 1901C we find he has married and with children, still living as in the 1891C:

    1901C:
    Name: Thomas Jackson
    Age: 42
    Estimated birth year: abt 1859
    Relationship: Head
    Spouse’s name : Mary Jackson
    Gender: Male
    Where born: Blantyre, Lanarkshire
    Registration Number: 624
    Registration district: Blantyre
    Civil Parish: Blantyre
    County: Lanarkshire
    Address: Greencroft House
    Occupation: Whitesale Tea Mershant
    ED: 3
    Household schedule number: 248
    LINE: 1
    Roll: CSSCT1901_245
    Household Members:
    Name Age
    Thomas Jackson 42
    Mary Jackson 29
    John A Jackson 8
    William Jackson 5
    Margaret Jackson 1
    Margaret Blyth 25
    Mary Blyth 21
    Annie Cassie 19

    Note: I have entered data as transcribed.

    So what happened to Bardykes House after 1881? I need to find John now in the 1901C!

    Like

    • Well I found John in the 1891C, how much a revisit focuses the mind. He is now married with chn. and still a Tea merchant, but 10 years later he is now a land owner:

      Name:
      John Jackson

      Age:
      38

      Estimated birth year:
      abt 1853

      Relationship:
      Head

      Spouse’s name :
      Alice M H Jackson

      Gender:
      Male

      Where born:
      Blantyre, Lanarkshire

      Registration Number:
      624

      Registration district:
      Blantyre

      Civil Parish:
      Blantyre

      County:
      Lanarkshire

      Address:
      Bardykes Ho

      Occupation:
      Tea Mcht

      ED:
      4

      Household schedule number:
      147

      LINE:
      1

      Roll:
      CSSCT1891_223

      Household Members:

      Name

      Age

      John Jackson 38
      Alice M H Jackson 28
      Robert Jackson 2
      Alice J M Jackson 1
      Elizabeth Watt 28
      Elizabeth Lees 19
      Elizabeth Cameron 28
      Kate Coakes 21
      John McLachlan 25

      And next:

      1901C:

      Name:
      John Jackson
      Age:
      48
      Estimated birth year:
      abt 1853
      Relationship:
      Head
      Spouse’s name :
      Alice M H Jackson
      Gender:
      Male
      Where born:
      Blantyre, Lanarkshire
      Registration Number:
      624
      Registration district:
      Blantyre
      Civil Parish:
      Blantyre
      County:
      Lanarkshire
      Address:
      Bardykes House
      Occupation:
      Land Proprietor
      ED:
      3
      Household schedule number:
      246
      LINE:
      12
      Roll:
      CSSCT1901_245
      Household Members:
      Name
      Age
      John Jackson 48
      Alice M H Jackson 38
      Robert Jackson 12
      Alice J M Jackson 11
      Kate Wales 31
      Bella Duncan 34
      Margaret Mcleod 30

      As for James I admit defeat, cannot readily trace in 1891C or later. did he die after 1881 or move overseas?

      Like

      • All the children that relate to Bardykes House are from this marriage and the sequence of births and ages fit in most census records:

        Name: Robert Jackson
        Gender: Male
        Marriage Date: 7 Mar 1851
        Marriage Place: Blantyre,Lanark,Scotland
        Spouse: Janet Dick
        FHL Film Number: 1042964, 0102886

        This is Robert JACKSON parents imho:
        Name:
        Robert Jackson
        Gender:
        Male
        Birth Date:
        5 Oct 1813
        Baptism Date:
        20 Oct 1813
        Baptism Place:
        Cambuslang, Lanark, Scotland
        Father:
        James Jackson
        Mother:
        Ann Scott
        FHL Film Number:
        1042966
        Reference ID:
        2:16JD6WC

        Robert has a younger bro. James. Although all the children of James + Ann SCOTT are b. Cambuslang, James is the only one to date that I can find in par. Blantyre namely Bardykes as follows (aft. 1841 cannot place). Information on this family after 1841 would be most welcome please!

        1841C:

        Name:
        James Jackson
        Age:
        40
        Estimated birth year:
        abt 1801
        Gender:
        Male
        Where born:
        Lanarkshire, Scotland
        Civil Parish:
        Blantyre
        County:
        Lanarkshire
        Address:
        Bardykes
        Occupation:
        Farmer
        Parish Number:
        624
        Household Members:
        Name
        Age
        James Jackson 40
        Margret Jackson 35
        Ann Jackson 15
        William Nicol 15
        Robert Scott 15 (Note SCOTT)
        Robert Krownhe 11
        Margret Ada 20
        Margret Gahan 20

        However in the 1851C Robert seems to have possibly taken over the farming or working another in Bardykes, Paul may well be able to answer this? Note Robert is 13 years younger than James. But so there is no misunderstanding, this is where I find Robert JACKSON in Bardykes having just married (apologies for the repeat but needs to be seen in context):
        1851C:

        Name:
        Robert Irchson
        Age:
        30
        Estimated birth year:
        abt 1821
        Relationship:
        Head
        Spouse:
        Janet Jackson
        Gender:
        Male
        Where born:
        Cambuslang, Lanarkshire
        Parish Number:
        624
        Civil Parish:
        Blantyre
        Phillimore Ecclesiastical Parish Maps:
        View related Ecclesiastical Parish
        Town:
        Barnhill
        County:
        Lanarkshire
        Address:
        Bardykes
        Occupation:
        Farmer Of 109 Ac Em 2 M & 4 Out
        ED:
        4
        Page:
        1
        Household schedule number:
        2
        LINE:
        6
        Roll:
        CSSCT1851_149
        Household Members:
        Name
        Age
        Robert Irchson 30
        Janet Jackson 25
        Robert Algie 30
        George Sterenson 20
        John Young 15
        Jean Arihour 25
        Ann Robertson 25
        Janet Galloway 22

        And this ends my story, how these records fit into the events at that time is for others to decide. I do not know the par. of James (+Ann SCOTT) -who for me started all of this – or why they settled in Spittall Hill, Cambuslang nor the family connection with Bardykes. Land transaction records may help. But according to Census records two of their sons settled in Bardykes and the children of Robert certainly staked their name to the Tea trade in some shape and form but how? The information is there for you to study and at the very least it helps substantiate the presence of one Jackson family to Bardykes. No doubt there are others, but to date they haven’t triggered the place Bardykes. Some joining of the dots may be even more possible – I hope so – and better still these modest posts help in that respect.

        Like

  2. After the death of JanetJACKSON nee DICK in 1864 we find all the ch. here in the 1871C:
    1871C:

    Name:
    James Jackson
    Age:
    49
    Estimated birth year:
    abt 1822
    Relationship:
    Head
    Gender:
    Male
    Where born:
    Blantyre, Lanarkshire
    Registration Number:
    624
    Registration district:
    Blantyre
    Civil Parish:
    Blantyre
    County:
    Lanarkshire
    Address:
    Bardykes Inatora House
    Occupation:
    Sratclalesman
    ED:
    2
    Household schedule number:
    81
    LINE:
    1
    Roll:
    CSSCT1871_118
    Household Members:
    Name
    Age
    James Jackson 49
    John Jackson 28
    Janet Jackson 17
    Robert Jackson 15
    Thomas Jackson 43
    Janet Scott 71
    Although the ages are questionable they are the chn. as in the previous 61C, only an image will confirm. No mention of Tea anywhere here among the occupations.

    However in the 1881C there is a notable change. John and his brothers Thomas and James are associated with the Tea market.

    James and John are Tea Merchants and Thomas a Commercial Traveller Tea Trade. So between the two census records there was a connection to the Tea Trade, but HOW? And the address is now “Bardykes House” which confirms the build was completed by say 1881. This suggests to me there was a large change of fortunes soon after the 1871C:

    1881C:

    Name:
    James Jackson
    Age:
    29
    Estimated birth year:
    abt 1852
    Relationship:
    Head
    Gender:
    Male
    Where born:
    Blantyre, Lanarkshire
    Registration Number:
    624
    Registration district:
    Blantyre
    Civil Parish:
    Blantyre
    County:
    Lanarkshire
    Address:
    Bardykes House
    Occupation:
    Tea Merchant
    ED:
    2
    Household schedule number:
    96
    LINE:
    2
    Roll:
    cssct1881_202
    Household Members:
    Name
    Age
    James Jackson 29
    John Jackson 28
    Janet Jackson 27
    Thomas Jackson 23
    Christina Ballantyne 18

    Like

  3. Paul, I have traced the genealogy trail back with reasonable substantiation from new Bardykes House to James JACKSON = Ann SCOTT living in the 41C @ Spittal Hill Farm. Not ideal for publication but if you care to contact me direct happy to discuss as it exposes the family in various shapes and forms. I am indirectly connected to the JACKSON line – all WIP of course.
    EG:
    Robert JACKSON (s/o above James) + Janet DICK appear:
    1851C:

    Name:
    Robert Irchson
    Age:
    30
    Estimated birth year:
    abt 1821
    Relationship:
    Head
    Spouse:
    Janet Jackson
    Gender:
    Male
    Where born:
    Cambuslang, Lanarkshire
    Parish Number:
    624
    Civil Parish:
    Blantyre
    Phillimore Ecclesiastical Parish Maps:
    View related Ecclesiastical Parish
    Town:
    Barnhill
    County:
    Lanarkshire
    Address:
    Bardykes
    Occupation:
    Farmer Of 109 Ac Em 2 M & 4 Out
    ED:
    4
    Page:
    1
    Household schedule number:
    2
    LINE:
    6
    Roll:
    CSSCT1851_149
    Household Members:
    Name
    Age
    Robert Irchson 30
    Janet Jackson 25
    Robert Algie 30
    George Sterenson 20
    John Young 15
    Jean Arihour 25
    Ann Robertson 25
    Janet Galloway 22

    Janet JACKSON nee DICK appears:
    1861C:

    Name:
    Janet Jackson
    Age:
    35
    Estimated birth year:
    abt 1826
    Relationship:
    Head
    Gender:
    Female
    Where born:
    Cambuslang, Lanarkshire
    Registration Number:
    624
    Registration district:
    Blantyre
    Civil Parish:
    Blantyre
    County:
    Lanarkshire
    Address:
    Bardykes
    Occupation:
    Liferenter Of Jointare Ve
    ED:
    3
    Household schedule number:
    72
    LINE:
    20
    Roll:
    CSSCT1861_92
    Household Members:
    Name
    Age
    Janet Jackson 35
    James Jackson 10
    John Jackson 8
    Janet Jackson 7
    Robert Jackson 5
    Thomas Jackson 3
    Eliza Thomson 4

    Like

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